Written by Jim Curto, the chief executive and founder of The Birches Assisted Living
Alzheimer’s Disease (“AD”) is the most common type of or cause of dementia. One theory is that AD is a metabolic disease where the brain does not properly process sugars or respond normally to signals from insulin, a primary—if not the primary—metabolic hormone.
Proponents of this idea, such as psychiatrist Georgia Ede, say insulin resistance is the driving force behind most “garden-variety” cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Ede says, “Insulin resistance of the body is type 2 diabetes; insulin resistance of the brain is type 3 diabetes. They are two separate diseases caused by the same underlying problem: insulin resistance.”
She hits the subject hard and says aggressively, “Refined carbohydrates cause brain damage,” and goes on to say that people with insulin resistance need to be careful with all carbohydrates not just refined ones.
Researcher and neuropathologist Dr. Suzanne M. de la Monte says almost the very same thing. She suggests the soaring rates of insulin resistance, related to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are also connected to the current Alzheimer’s epidemic.
Resistance to the effects of insulin can come from having too much insulin circulating in our blood as a result of intake of certain foods and drinks. Adopting a strategy to not take in foods that stimulate insulin can lead to lowering insulin levels, which can, over time, allow insulin to work (and signal) properly and reduce or eliminate insulin resistance.
Along this same line of thinking is perhaps a bit more extreme idea: a ketogenic diet can improve thinking in people with dementia.
If you eat a ketogenic diet (very low in carbohydrates with moderate protein and ‘good’ fats) your liver will generate ketone bodies (or ketones) that are a source of energy for the body and an especially good one for the brain. With insulin resistance and with dementia, it’s harder for the brain to use glucose for energy, but ketone bodies easily provide the large amounts of energy our brains need and provide it more efficiently.
When your body runs on ketones, in place of glucose, you are said to be ‘in ketosis.’ These diets were used in the 1920s to stop epileptic seizures in children. Getting kids into ketosis stopped seizures in their tracks. This shows the power of food to change brain chemistry. Maybe it works with AD too.
An evolutionary theory suggests fasting as an approach to managing Alzheimer’s disease. Driving insulin levels down by not eating for a while to allow better focus and improve attention is not a proven thing, but it’s is a valid area of inquiry. If lack of food made our distant forbears tired and listless, they might never have had the energy to find it. On the contrary, hunger might prove to be a stimulation to an alertness and a readiness to take action.
Should we all strive to get into ketosis, to fast intermittently in order to drive our insulin levels down so that the insulin hormone works properly? Will this reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s? Should we (slightly) starve people who already have AD to try to achieve more clarity and focus?
Maybe it’s worth a try, but not only is it easier said than done, but what are we seeking to improve? Quality of life? The pleasures of food are nothing to be ignored, in the overall scheme of things. In any case, keep an eye on these interesting connections between food and the brain.